Globalization (Globalisation, Referat Englisch)

Cultural issues, Basic global trends, Hopes, Fears, Global warming, International peacekeeping, Referat, Hausaufgabe, Globalization (Globalisation, Referat Englisch)
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Globalization (Globalisation, Referat Englisch)

The term globalization refers to the process of increasing international integration in many areas (economy, politics, culture, environment, communication), between individuals, societies, institutions and states. The term was probably coined in the 1960s. From around 1986 onwards, numerous German-language books appeared that used globalization in their title.

Colonialism in many European countries is regarded as the precursor of globalization. He began with the discovery of new sea routes and countries. Portugal and Spain were the main players for centuries. England soon became the world's leading maritime power (British Empire) after Napoleon's end. From about 1880 to 1914, many European countries tried to bring or keep colonies under their influence. Japan tried this until 1945. Decolonization began after the Second World War. In 1960, the African Year, 18 African states gained independence. Since then, ex-colonies can have trade relations with other countries. The fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of the Cold War has significantly changed the geopolitical situation and this has influenced globalisation.

Cultural issues:

  • values,
  • lifestyles,
  • communication (nur GK)

Economic, ecological and cultural issues and their political consequences

  • Modern means of transport
  • Highly advanced communication systems
    • globalized world
  • People are more connected (communication networks)
  • Enterprises operate on a global scale instead of a national scale → global spread of ideas
  • Global economy → free trade, flow of money and easy access to cheaper markets (Asia e.g. sweatshops in developing countries produce cheap goods for the global market / assembly lines → inequalities between the rich and the poor
  • Rising for India and China as economic rivals for the UK and USA
  • The threat of global warming (e.g. polar bears)
  • The increasing mobility of people
  • Flow of money and goods between international markets and production

Basic global trends:

  1. Economic (multinational companies, global players who look for the cheapest production, speed and profit is more important than their employee’s welfare)
  2. Technological (people communicate more easily by computer or mobile phones; rapid advances)
  3. Cultural (spread of national cultural things around the world e.g. sports and music; technology)


Developing countries:

  • work, prosperity
  • spread of freedom, democracy + human rights
    → Universal values, general economic prosperity + ecological stability


Developing countries:

  • increasing dependence
  • negative cultural influences
  • manipulation through mass media

Developed countries:

  • illegal immigration
  • uncontrolled economy
    → inequality + pollution
  • “survival of the fittest “ (gap between rich + poor)

Global warming:

  • Increase in the Earth’s temperature
    → human activities: carbon dioxide, methane, other greenhouse gases

International peacekeeping:

  • The United Nations:
    • global organization
    • aims: promote international security, peace, justice, human rights + economic development
    • representatives from 192 nations
  • Non-governmental organizations (NGO’s)
    • independent of the government
    • issues: emergency aid / humanitarian support

America’s responsibility:

  • The US - a global superpower
  • US role: global policeman or helping hand
  • Lead the world to democracy
  • Protect US global interests
  • Build up a more cooperative world
  • Protect the US homeland
  • Permanent member of the UN in the Security Council
  • Interferes and intervenes in foreign affairs (e.g. Middle East)
  • Wants to control, build up democratic and free societies
  • Responsible for human rights and peace → uses military power in own self-interest because the USA profits from raw materials